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Research and publication ethics

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Enacted in 1997. 2.
Revised in 2007. 12.
Revised in 2015. 3.
Revised in 2019. 12.

For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instructions, Guidelines on Good Publication ( or Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals ( can be applied.


A conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author's institution), a reviewer, or an editor has financial (e.g., employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, and paid expert testimony) or personal relationships that can inappropriately influence their actions with respect to the manuscript ( Authors must fully disclose any such relationships on the separate title page file.


While reporting experiments that involve human subjects, it should be stated that the study was performed according to the Helsinki Declaration ( and approved by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) or the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the institution where the experiment was performed. The author should also include the IRB or REC institution name and number in the text. In the case of an animal study, a statement should be provided indicating that the experiment process, such as the breeding and the use of laboratory animals, was approved by the REC of the institution where the experiment was performed or that it does not violate the rules of the REC of the institution or the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council). The authors should preserve raw experimental study data for at least 1 year after the publication of the paper and should present this data if required by the editorial board.


The PAN has recommended the following statement for the protection of privacy, confidentiality, and written informed consent: The rights of patients should not be infringed without written informed consent. Identifying details should not be published in written descriptions (patient's names, initials, hospital numbers, dates of birth, or other protected healthcare information), photographs, and pedigrees unless it is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or his/her parents or guardian) provides written informed consent for publication. However, complete patient anonymity is difficult to achieve; therefore, informed consent should be obtained in the event that anonymity of the patient is not assured. For example, masking the eye region of patients in photographs is not adequate to ensure anonymity. If identifying characteristics are changed to protect anonymity, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should take note of this. When informed consent has been obtained, it should be indicated in the published article.


Authors are strongly recommended to register their clinical trials with primary national clinical trial registries such as Korea Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS,, other primary national registries accredited by the World Health Organization (, or ( We define a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects into intervention and comparison groups, to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome.


To be listed as an author, an individual must meet all of the following criteria: 1) made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the study; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; 2) contributed to drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) provided approval of the final version to be published; and 4) agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that any questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. All individuals who do not meet the above criteria but have contributed to the article should be listed in the Acknowledgments section (


Submitted manuscripts must be original and not be under consideration by other scientific journals for publication at the same time. Accepted manuscripts should not be duplicated in whole or in part in any other scientific journal without permission from the Editorial Board. If duplicate publications of the papers published in this journal or plagiarism is detected, the journal may take action against the authors, which may range from requesting their institutions to assess the facts or asking the Editor-in-Chief of the counterpart journal to acknowledge the error and retract the paper, to banning the authors from publishing in PAN for up to 3 years. The final sanction against the author(s) may be discussed in the Editorial Board meeting.


All contents of an accepted article must be strictly confidential and may not appear in media, either in print or electronic form, before the article's embargo date. All authors and funding institutions must adhere to this policy and not distribute the results of their work prior to the embargo date. If an embargo break is a result of any action by an author, they risk the withdrawal of the accepted article. Violations of the embargo policy may also jeopardize future acceptance of the author’s manuscripts by PAN. Generally, embargoes on journal articles are lifted at the time of publication, either online or in print (whichever comes first).


Manuscripts may be republished if they satisfy the conditions laid down by the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (


Suspected cases of research and publication misconduct—such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fabricated data, authorship issues, undisclosed conflicts of interest, ethical issues in the submitted manuscript, reviewer misconduct, or complaints against editors—will be resolved by the Editorial Board as per the flowchart provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (

All papers accepted to this journal are checked for plagiarism using the iThenticate ( program. If the plagiarism rate is found to be within the permissible limits, we begin the process of editing and publishing.


The editorial board will continuously work to monitor and safeguard publication ethics: providing guidelines for retracting articles; maintaining the integrity of the academic record; preventing business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards; publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies where needed; and ensuring that no plagiarized work or fraudulent data are published. All manuscripts will be subject to a similarity check (Powered by iThenticate) to assess the originality of the submitted work. If the similarity index is unexpectedly high, the manuscript will be screened more precisely for plagiarism or duplicate publication. Editors maintain the following: the responsibility and authority to reject/accept an article; have no conflicts of interest with respect to the articles they reject/accept; accept a paper when reasonably certain of its appropriateness; promote the publication of a correction or retraction when errors are found; and preserve the anonymity of reviewers.
All manuscripts from editors, employees, or members of the editorial board are processed in the same way as other unsolicited manuscripts. During the review process, submitters will not engage in the decision process. Editors will not handle their own manuscripts although they are commissioned ones.

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